WHITE PAPER ON DEFENCE, 1996 & DEFENCE REVIEW, 1996

A HISTORY OF THE WP & DR DURING THE FIRST 10 YEARS OF DEMOCRACY

Purposes of the White Paper & Defence Review.

· It communicated Government's policies and intentions concerning the SANDF, and positioned the SANDF appropriately within South Africa, the Region and the Continent.

· It explained the policies of Government to the People of South Africa for garner their support and lend legitimacy to Defence.

· It informed stakeholders and interest groups how Government translates ifs security and foreign policies into directions and guidelines for Defence

· It provided Defence with a long-term policy basis within which it will conduct its business.

· The White Paper contains most the South Africa's Meta-Policies on Defence (Higher Order Policies) focusing on the longer-term and more stable policy pronouncements, such as:

· Strategic Context

· International law

· Domestic Governance

· etc

· The Defence Review focuses more on the management and administration policies governing defence. These are more likely to change over time and relate to issues such as:

HOW DID THE 1996 & 1998 PROCESSES UNFOLD?

Change Imperatives in South Africa

· Political transition in South Africa pre and post 1994.

· Changes in the external environment, especially the move from bi-polar East vs. West/ Capitalism vs. Communism divide.

· Government had a clear prioritised policy of reconstruction, development and poverty alleviation.

· Changed cultural and normative realities came to the fore in SA.

· Authority of Parliament and the national executive

· President as Commander in Chief

· Member of Cabinet responsible for defence

· Oversight by Parliamentary Committees

· Adherence to domestic and international law

· Civilian defence secretariat

· Appointment of military commander by CIC

· Integration of forces

· Absence of policy baseline for Defence

· Transformation of structures and processes

Policy Process White Paper on Defence

· Green Paper drafted, but not approved by Ministry, and declared a non-paper.

· Appointment of an external drafter by Deputy Minister (Mr Laurie Nathan).

· Drafts 1 to 6 of White Paper: June 1995 to May 1996.

· There was an active "Committee-based" role of JSCD in formal drafting process.

Process to Draft the Defence Review

· Defence Review Work Group was established by the Minister of Defence Comprising:

· Members of Secretariat and SANDF

· Representatives of JSCD

· Ministerial advisors

· NGO representatives

· Industry representatives Academics

· Defence posture

· Efficiency and structure

· Human resources

· Part-time/reserve component

· Land and the environment

· Defence industry & acquisition management

· Defence legal environment

 

 

 

 

 

SHORT COMINGS OF THE 1996 WHITE PAPER & 1998 DEFENCE REVIEW

White Paper on Defence, 1996

· While the majority of armed conflicts are indeed taking place within, rather than between, states, there are significant exceptions. In addition, the polarising influence of opposing interventions or assistance to belligerents in internal conflict has led to tensions between states and/or groups of states that could easily escalate to inter-state conflict.

· The causes of these conflicts are complex and deep-seated, and it is highly unlikely that they will be conclusively resolved in the near future.

· The UN has become more assertive in African peacekeeping, but there is also an emergent conviction that regional and sub-regional organisation must take more responsibility for managing the conflict in their neighbourhoods

· This implies a greater role for the AU & SADC in managing regional conflict. South Africa is expected to play a significant role in this.

· The opportunity to rationalise, redesign and right-size the SANDF in the absence of a conventional military threat less pronounced than expected due to the cumulative weight of its secondary functions.

· The emergence of an overall RSA national security and foreign policy framework, with a more defined vision of South Africa's role in the region and globally, not only enables, but requires, a more detailed analysis of the strategic environment

· It also requires a more detailed exposition of those policies and of the role of defence in pursuit of South Africa's security objectives. The possible inclusion of new topics, such as an analysis of the technological environment and the internal (organisational) environment, should furthermore be considered.

· Specific attention must be given to the Chapters 3,4~5 & 6.

· Integration of Forces.

· Demobilisation.

· While a redrafting will probably contain much that is in agreement with the current White Paper, some aspects should be elaborated~ new topics should be included and the whole should be presented as a new paradigm the pragmatic use of defence in support of national policy to reflect the demands of the future.

Defence Review, 1998

New strategic environment emerged out of the White Paper, characterised by a "primarily defensive posture".

· The force design option was subject to realization of the financial planning assumptions on which it was based

DOD BUDGET ALLOCATION IN NOMINAL TERMS

Final year

Approx. Operating (Rb)

Approx. Personnel (Rb)

Approx. Capital (Rb)

1989/90

2100

2000

6000

1990/91

2200

2300

5900

1991/92

3000

2500

4600

1992/93

3000

2900

4200

1993/94

3900

5000

3900

1994/95

4000

4000

3800

1995/96

4200

4200

3500

1996/97

4800

4500

2000

1997/98

5000

5200

1800

1998/99

5900

6000

1700

1999/00

5800

5900

2000

2000/01

6000

5900

4800

2001/02

6200

600

5900

2002/03

6500

6200

7000

2003/04

7000

6300

9000

2004/05

7900

7000

8000

2005/06

8000

800

10000

DEFENCE BUDGET ALLOCATION/DISTR 89 - 05 IN REAL
TERMS IN 2002 RAND VALUE

Final year

Approx. Operating

Approx. Personnel

Approx. Capital

1989/90

4900

5200

20000

1990/91

3000

6200

18000

1991/92

3000

7300

12000

1992/93

2900

7100

9000

1993/94

2500

7000

7000

1994/95

4000

7100

5800

1995/96

4200

8000

5500

1996/97

6000

6000

2000

1997/98

5000

6200

1800

1998/99

7000

6000

1700

1999/00

6800

5900

1500

2000/01

6000

5800

48000

2001/02

6200

5600

5900

2002/03

6100

5200

7000

2003/04

5900

6300

7600

2004/05

5400

5100

8000

2005/06

55000

5000

9000

 

Absence of medium term planning indicators

· There is thus a clear understanding that the financial planning assumptions of the Defence Review are no longer valid.

Other Inconsistencies and Shifts from Defence Review Positions

· National Security Policy & Foreign Policy.

· It was only after the policy of integrated and co-operative governance (cluster system) was developed as was envisaged in Chapter 3 of the 1996 Constitution did these transverse policies start becoming crystallised.

· Internal Role of the SANDF.

· Peace Missions.

· The management of Peace Missions1 as espoused in the Defence Review and the ensuing White Paper on Peace Missions, has shown major problems,

· Especially wrt the level of involvement, planning, budgeting and approval.

· Force Design.

· Strategic Defence Packages entered into force.

· There is a clear mismatch between envisaged force design of the

both the force design and force structure invalid.

· Human Resources.

· The White Paper focused on integration and demobilisation. These

processes have been completed

· The adoption of HR 2010 as the DOD's long-term HR strategy implies a

revision of some of the tenets underlying the HR philosophies as reflected in

the Defence Review.

· Review of the General Regulations that allowed for a Military Trade Union

dispensation.

· Finance.

· The need to update financial management to come in line with the Public

Finance Management Act (PFMA) is evident, especially as it pertains to the

transition to Accrual Accounting.

· The aged and outdated financial management systems, and a need to

implement effective information and costing systems.

· However, the basic principles pertaining to democratic governance and accountability of the SANDF/DOD will remain valid for the next decade.

 

 

 

 

 

 

AN APPROACH TO THE REDRAFTING OF THE WHITE PAPER AND DEFENCE REVIEW

Some Points on Departure

· The White Paper and Defence Review should set a "Defence Vision" for the next period.

· The relevant policy tenets in the existing White Paper and Defence Review will, where appropriate, be affirmed.

· Two separate documents will be produced:

Key Reference Documents

· Constitution of The Republic of South Africa, Act 108 of 1996.

· Defence Act, Act 42 Of 2002

· Public Service Act, 1994 (Proclamation

Government Gazette 1115791 of 3 June1994).

· Public Finance Management Act (Act I of 1999 as amended by the

· Public Finance Management Amendment Act (Act 29 of 1999)

· South African White Paper on Defence, 1996.

South African Defence Review, I 998.

· Ten-Year Review.

· Cabinet Lekgotla Reports

· Reports of the CIusters, with special reference to the IRPS, JCPS and G&A clusters.

· National Fiscal Policy (National Treasury).

Concept Papers to assist in drafting Report 1.

· Strategic Environment.

· Government Strategic Direction to Defence.

· Corporate Governance, Accountability and Regulatory Framework

· Civil Military Relations.

· Defence Diplomacy

· Non-P roliferation, Disarmament and International Humanitarian Law

· Continental and Regional Security Architecture and NEPAD, as well as the costing of these structures to the

DOD.

· Doctrine and Posture of the SANDF.

· Peace Support Operations & African Standby Force Commitments.

· International Terrorism and Counter Terrorism.

· Defence Strategy and attendant Military Strategy.

Concept Papers to assist in drafting Report 2.

· Force Employment Strategy.

· Concept of Missions.

· Force Design & Cost.

· Force Structure & Cost.

· HR Support Strategy & Cost.

· Defence Facilities Management & Cost.

· Matériele Equipment Support Strategy & Cost.

· Financial Support Strategy & Cost

· Defence Industry Strategy, Equipment Strategy and Technology Strategy - C Acquisition, supported by CEO Armscor.

· Information Management Strategy & Cost.

· Comparative economic analysis of the SA defence budget contextualised in a global and African context.

· The African Battle Space: Nature of the Battle Space1 Physical Conditions, Social Issues and Threats to Health and Safety.

Proposed Chapter Design for the WP&DR

· Chapter 1: Introduction.

· Contextualises the WP&DR

· Outlines the Constitutional & Legislative Frameworks.

· Acknowledges the external environment.

 

· Chapter 2: Strategic Environment.

· Examines the Global, Continental, Regional and Domestic context.

· Looks at institutional change

· Examines posture and orientation of Government policy.

· Events shaping the environment. (International terrorism, WMD, Failed & Failing States, Continental Conflict).

· Chapter 3: Continental and Regional Security Architecture.

· Regional - SADC (OPDSC - ISDSC SADC MDP).

· Continental - AU (PSC, MSC, REWS, POW, ASF & CADSP)

· Chapter 4: Government Approach to Security.

· Existing White Paper understanding of Security

· Integrated government and the role of JCPS & lRPS.

· Broad security Goals, Objectives & Themes as articulated by Government via the JCPS, IRPS & 10 Year Review

· Military strategic objectives and defence programmes.

· Chapter 5 - Defence Diplomacy International Humanitarian Law.

· Geneva Conventions & Protocols.

· ICC

· Ottawa (Anti-Personnel Mines)

· Protection of cultural property.

· Child soldiers.

· NPT&MTCR

· Chemical, Biological1 Nuclear.

· CSBM's

· Attachés, exercises, exchanges of personnel & information.

· Bilateral

· MOU's establishing BNCs, BCs JCs JPCs, Def Coms

· Multilateral

· Collective Security

· Common Defence Policy

· Non Aggression Pacts

· Mutual Defence Pacts

· Chapter 6: Roles and Functions of the SANDF

· Posture of the SANDF.

· Doctrine of the SANDF.

· Conventional role.

· Operations other than war

· Specific policy pronouncements on participation in Peace Missions.

· Force employment strategy.

· Concepts of missions & concepts of operations.

· Chapter 7: Force Design and Force Structure

· Force design based on the results of instruction 07/02 and the outcomes of Resolution 5 of the Parys work

session.

· Costed and affordable design aligned with budgetary realities.

· Organisational structure based on the results of Resolution 4 of the Parys work session.

· Chapter 8: Defence Management

· Integrated governance & executive decision making.

· Principles of civil-military relations.

· The PFMA & Defence Resources - accountability; economy; efficiency

· Capability management.

· Chapter 9: Human Resources

· Based on the significant policy themes of HR 2010.

· Addresses burgeoning issues such as:

· Batho Pele

· Military Labour Relations

· Civic Education.

· Age and demographics.

· HIVIAIDS and other life-threatening diseases.

 

· Higher Order Policy matters regarding Reserves and Veterans.

 

Chapter 12: FUTURE DEFENCE REQUIREMENTS AND CAPABILITIES.

· Examine major themes identified in the strategic environment.

WMD.

· Foreign military assistance, mercenaries and para military forces.

· Failed and Failing States.